Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin b4, is a member of a highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. b-thymosins are the primary regulators of unpolymerized actin, and are essential for maintaining the small cytoplasmic pool of free G-actin monomers required for rapid filament elongation and allowing for the flux of monomers between the thymosin-bound pool and F-actin.
Thymosin b4 is a 43 amino acid peptide which is regarded as the main intracellular G-actin sequestering peptide. It has a molecular weight of 4963.55 Da, and its molecular formula is: C212H350N56O78S1. Extracellular Thymosin b4 may contribute to physiological processes such as angiogenesis, wound healing, and regulation of inflammation.
The discovery of the role of Tβ4 in the process of immune regulation has lead to its use as a valuable therapeutic agent. Tβ4 has been used in the treatment of HIV, AIDS, Influenza, colds, and various infections. It has been utilized in the management of various inflammatory conditions, as well as part of treatment following a heart attack due to its cardio and neuroprotective effects.
Tβ4 is very well tolerated and has not been found to cause any significant side effects. It can be taken on its own or in conjunction with an existing therapy, making it a versatile and valuable peptide.